Le duc de Kent était à Dresde pour la remise du “Prix de la paix” à Kim Phuc Phan Thi, ... (pire que le phosphore). [39] It said that there were 110 factories and 50,000 workers in the city supporting the German war effort at the time of the raid. [92] Since 1989, despite extensive excavation for new buildings, no war-related bodies have been found. It became more and more difficult to breathe. Selon Gert Bürgel[41], les témoignages entendus et les matériaux de travail de la commission sont inaccessibles, couverts par le secret et ne peuvent donc pas être l'objet d'étude critique. L'évaluation actuelle du nombre des victimes se situe autour de 35 000 morts (dont 25 000 corps identifiés)[2],[3]. Despite Irving's eventual much lower numbers, and later accusations of generally poor scholarship, the figure popularized by Vonnegut remains in general circulation. Ainsi la RAF ne disposait même pas de carte précise de la ville. [112][113][114] This was completed on 1 April 1945: ...the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. The only inaccuracy that I found in it is that it does not say that the night attack which produced the holocaust was a British affair. I do not know how many people I fell over. 47, that originated with Hitler's Reich Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels. Le 28 mars 1945, Winston Churchill s'interrogea dans une note d'état major sur l'opportunité de ce bombardement[18]. 47 ("TB47") issued on 22 March the number of dead recovered by that date was 20,204, including 6,865 who were cremated on the Altmarkt square, and they expected that the total number of deaths to be about 25,000. The destruction of Dresden remains a serious query against the conduct of Allied bombing. The 303rd group arrived over Dresden two minutes after the 379th and found their view obscured by clouds, so they bombed Dresden using H2X radar. Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca en 1943.Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. I efteråret 1944 og i vinteren 1944/45 foregik de allieredes fremrykning væsentligt langsommere end de havde ventet. On 8 February 1945, the Red Army crossed the Oder River, with positions just 70 kilometres (43 mi) from Berlin. Le bombardement de Dresde, qui eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la Directive du ministère de l'air du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942 devenue avec l'USAAF celle de en 1943, détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en Bomber stream. [18] One of the main authors responsible for inflated figures being disseminated in the West was Holocaust denier David Irving, who subsequently announced that he had discovered that the documentation he had worked from had been forged, and the real figures supported the 25,000 number. Warning! A secondary objective was to disrupt the industrial use of Dresden for munitions manufacture, which American intelligence believed was the case. Når diskussionen er blusset op igen, skyldes det tyskernes forståelige optagethed af deres egne lidelser under krigen og deres ønske om at blive accepteret som ligeværdige partnere i Europa. La ville (629 713 habitants en 1939) comprenait en effet plusieurs gares et centralisait des réseaux téléphoniques vitaux pour le front de l'Est ; en raison des circonstances, elle aurait été intégrée tardivement au projet opération Thunderclap (de) en août 1944 qui proposait originairement de frapper Berlin[5] de manière décisive[6]. Amazon.in - Buy Dresde 1945 book online at best prices in india on Amazon.in. His studio having burned in the attack with his life's work, Rudolph immediately set out to record the destruction, systematically drawing block after block, often repeatedly to show the progress of clearing or chaos that ensued in the ruins. The American inquiry established that the Soviets, under allied agreements for the United States and the United Kingdom to provide air support for the Soviet offensive toward Berlin, had requested area bombing of Dresden to prevent a counterattack through Dresden, or the use of Dresden as a regrouping point after a strategic retreat. Februar 1945", Air operations during the Battle of Europe, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bombing_of_Dresden_in_World_War_II&oldid=994797400, History of the Royal Air Force during World War II, World War II strategic bombing of Germany, Aerial operations and battles of World War II by town or city, Germany–United Kingdom military relations, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 7 aircraft (1 B-17 and 6 Lancasters, including crews), Military units and anti-aircraft defences were sufficiently close that it was not valid to consider the city "undefended.". [53][54], The Lancasters crossed into French airspace near the Somme, then into Germany just north of Cologne. Une estimation à 250 000 morts a été avancée par les Soviétiques. Dans la ville de Dresde, joyau architectural, s’étaient réfugiés pas moins de 750 000 civils qui avaient fui devant l’invasion de l’armée soviétique et campaient dans les parcs, sur les trottoirs, dans les rues. [124] The society is committed to reconstructing the historic city centre as much as possible. Bacchus sur un âne ivre, œuvre de Georg Wrba[48]. [36][44], In the raid, major industrial areas in the suburbs, which stretched for miles, were not targeted. The death toll of 135,000 given by Vonnegut was taken from The Destruction of Dresden, a 1963 book by David Irving. It was argued that area bombing intended to disrupt communications and destroy industrial production. The unease was made worse by an Associated Press story that the Allies had resorted to terror bombing. [20] A special British Joint Intelligence Subcommittee report, German Strategy and Capacity to Resist, prepared for Winston Churchill's eyes only, predicted that Germany might collapse as early as mid-April if the Soviets overran its eastern defences. Les bombes incendiaires sont utilisées comme armes de guerre. He then added in an offhand remark that the raid also helped destroy "what is left of German morale." « there is good reason to believe that later in March copies of — or extracts from — [an official police report] were leaked to the neutral press by Goebbels's Propaganda Ministry … doctored with an extra zero to make [the total dead from the raid] 202,040. According to him, 600,000 civilians died during the allied bombing of German cities, including 72,000 children. ", "Bomber-Harris Superstar – Thanks from the red Antifa", and "Deutsche Täter sind keine Opfer!" c) un document de 101 pages (Helmut Schnatz) sur les attaques de civils à la mitrailleuse depuis des avions à basse altitude, attaques dont la réalité est alléguée et non prouvée, aucune découverte archéologique de balles de calibre 50 -12,7mm- près de l'Elbe, par exemple, n'ayant été faite. [86][87] Another report on 3 April put the number of corpses recovered at 22,096. Why did we burn its people? [42] The city was at the junction of the Berlin-Prague-Vienna railway line, as well as the Munich-Breslau, and Hamburg-Leipzig lines. Today they are officer's schools ("Offiziersschule des Heeres") for the Bundeswehr and its military history museum (from prehistoric to modern times). Traditional British chivalry and the use of minimum force in war was to become a mockery and the outrages perpetrated by the bombers will be remembered a thousand years hence".[148]. The German national air-defence system could be used to argue—as the tribunal did—that no German city was "undefended". President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)met at Yalta in the USSR and compromised on their visions of the postwar world. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 7 novembre 2020 à 17:25. Books. Dresde 1945: 3760207260085: Books - Amazon.ca. In the special introduction to the 1976 Franklin Library edition of the novel, he wrote: The Dresden atrocity, tremendously expensive and meticulously planned, was so meaningless, finally, that only one person on the entire planet got any benefit from it. Attacks there, where main railway junctions, telephone systems, city administration and utilities were, would result in "chaos." La ville de Dresde était très importante pour l’Allemagne, notamment au niveau historique. Vonnegut, being American, did not want to write his account in such a way that the whole thing could be blamed on the British. Exemple d'école convertie : Vitzthumschule. The bombing of Dresden was a British-American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II.In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city. A party's representative, Jürgen Gansel, described the Dresden raids as "mass murder," and "Dresden's holocaust of bombs". L'évaluation du nombre de morts a beaucoup fluctué. The Germans put him and other POWs to work gathering bodies for mass burial. Le 13 février 1945 environ 400 000 réfugiés allemands (femmes, enfants et vieillards) périssaient à Dresde sous les « bombes libératrices » au phosphore des alliées. There was a huge uproar, since the Yalta agreement handed parts of Poland over to the Soviet Union. (Today I know that these unfortunate people were the victims of lack of oxygen.) 1,0 sur 5 étoiles Dresde en toile de fond. Gérard 17 février 2019 @ 18:26 Cette horreur venait après le bombardement de Coventry… Reply. [106][107][108] On 28 March, in a memo sent by telegram to General Ismay for the British Chiefs of Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff, he wrote: It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed. Frederick Taylor told Der Spiegel, "I personally find the attack on Dresden horrific. [24] On 25 January, the Joint Intelligence Committee supported the idea, as it tied in with the Ultra-based intelligence that dozens of German divisions deployed in the west were moving to reinforce the Eastern Front, and that interdiction of these troop movements should be a "high priority. Pour le parti d’extrême droite Alternative pour l'Allemagne (AFD), le nombre officiel de victimes est largement sous-estimé. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. The phrase "worth the bones of one British grenadier" echoed Otto von Bismarck's: "The whole of the Balkans is not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier". Meilleur commentaire critique . From February 4 to February 11, the Big Three Allied leadersU.S. Skip to main content. If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies. So instead the Nazis sent in troops with flamethrowers. Décryptage par l'historien britannique Keith Lowe. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Série "Toute L’histoire" par Frida samedi 11 mai 2013 7%. Insane fear grips me and from then on I repeat one simple sentence to myself continuously: "I don't want to burn to death". [b] This was a group of Lancasters from Bomber Command's 83 Squadron, No. At 21:39 the Reich Air Defence Leadership issued an enemy aircraft warning for Dresden, although at that point it was thought Leipzig might be the target. Le bombardement de Dresde, dans la partie orientale de l'Allemagne, demeure pour l'Europe le pendant d'Hiroshima et de Nagasaki au Japon: une horreur méthodiquement préparée, organisée et exécutée par ceux qui se présentent encore aujourd'hui comme les «libérateurs». The last group to attack Dresden was the 306th, and they finished by 12:30. This is a doctrine to which I could never subscribe. Find betydning, stavning, synonymer og meget mere i moderne dansk. Des estimations élevées se réfèrent souvent à des déclarations de témoins oculaires qui ne peuvent plus être réexaminées, ainsi qu'à des informations de sources aux motifs divers (parfois négationnistes) : Le bilan finalement admis est de 25 000 morts maximum (dont 18 000 corps identifiés), établi par une commission d'historiens dirigée par Rolf-Dieter Müller et mandatée par la ville de Dresde en 2004-2010[29]. [13][14], In the decades since the war, large variations in the claimed death toll have fuelled the controversy, though the numbers themselves are no longer a major point of contention among historians. [19], Early in 1945, the German offensive known as the Battle of the Bulge had been exhausted, as was the Luftwaffe's disastrous New Year's Day attack involving elements of 11 combat wings of its day fighter force. She carries a bundle in her arms. 117–9. Amazon.ca - Buy Dresde Apocalypse at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. So many people were horribly burnt and injured. [48], When Polish crews of the designated squadrons were preparing for the mission, the terms of the Yalta agreement were made known to them. I know only one thing: that I must not burn. Bombardement de Dresde - Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du au , selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du , devenue avec l'USAAF la en 1943. Harris quotes as his source the Public Records Office ATH/DO/4B quoted by Lord Zuckerman "From Apes to Warlords" p. 352. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGrayling2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGrayling2006b (, United Newsreel on the bombing of Dresden, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Aerial bombardment and international law § International law up to 1945, Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, blocked a demonstration of far-right organizations, Slaughterhouse-Five or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death, Operation Gomorrah campaign against Hamburg. Despite repeated diplomatic attempts to update international humanitarian law to include aerial warfare, it was not updated before the outbreak of World War II. [7] Even after the main firebombing, there were two further raids on the Dresden railway yards by the USAAF. Bombardement - 650 000 bombes - 7000 tonnes - De la Grande-Bretagne et Amérique Faits du bombardement - Destruction d'un tiers de la ville - Feux intense - Morts de nombre inconnu innocent - estimé 50 000 à 305 000 morts - Température de 1800°F - rue qui fond à cause du chaleur Try Prime EN Hello, Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Returns & Orders Try Prime Cart. [7], On 13 February 1945, bad weather over Europe prevented any USAAF operations, and it was left to RAF Bomber Command to carry out the first raid. Dresde 1945 on Amazon.com.au. [122][123], A further development towards the reconstruction of Dresden's historical core came in 1999 when the Dresden Historical Neumarkt Society was founded. [49], The first of the British aircraft took off at around 17:20 hours CET for the 700-mile (1,100 km) journey. Howard Cowan, an Associated Press war correspondent, subsequently filed a story saying that the Allies had resorted to terror bombing. Utile. [81] As a result, most people took shelter in their cellars, but one of the air raid precautions the city had taken was to remove the thick cellar walls between rows of buildings and replace them with thin partitions that could be knocked through in an emergency. [38], The US Air Force Historical Division wrote a report in response to the international concern about the bombing that remained classified until December 1978. Le fait aussi que le bombardement de Dresde qui a finalement était choisi pour l'opération de destruction soit constitué en deux parties avec des obus à retardement est beaucoup plus instructif et passionnant. [147] Wing Commander H. R. Allen said, "The final phase of Bomber Command's operations was far and away the worst. Les témoignages font aussi dramatiquement état de la présence d'une tempête de feu (Feuersturm) sur plusieurs kilomètres carrés, confirmée par les analyses[32], avec des vents de la force d'une tornade[33] qui aspiraient vers le feu les victimes qui tentaient de se retenir[34],[35]. If clouds obscured Dresden but Chemnitz was clear, Chemnitz was the target. The second attack, three hours later, was by Lancaster aircraft of 1, 3, 6 and 8 Groups, 8 Group being the Pathfinders. [143] It is also stated that the important Autobahn bridge to the west of the city was not targeted or attacked, and that no railway stations were on the British target maps, nor any bridges, such as the railway bridge spanning the Elbe River. [a] Three more USAAF air raids followed, two occurring on 2 March aimed at the city's railway marshalling yard and one smaller raid on 17 April aimed at industrial areas. Ostensibly, Britain had learned this after the Coventry Blitz, when loss of this crucial infrastructure had supposedly longer-lasting effects than attacks on war plants. [103], One of the journalists asked whether the principal aim of bombing Dresden would be to cause confusion among the refugees or to blast communications carrying military supplies. À l'arrière-plan, la manufacture de tabac Yenidze. [152], German author Günter Grass is one of several intellectuals and commentators who have also called the bombing a war crime.[153]. Free delivery on qualified orders. [64] Taylor compares this 40% mix with the raid on Berlin on 3 February, where the ratio was 10% incendiaries. He claims that Winston Churchill's decision to bomb a shattered Germany between January and May 1945 was a war crime. [32], During the Yalta Conference on 4 February, the Deputy Chief of the Soviet General Staff, General Aleksei Antonov, raised the issue of hampering the reinforcement of German troops from the western front by paralysing the junctions of Berlin and Leipzig with aerial bombardment. This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. According to Max Hastings, by February 1945, attacks upon German cities had become largely irrelevant to the outcome of the war and the name of Dresden resonated with cultured people all over Europe—"the home of so much charm and beauty, a refuge for Trollope's heroines, a landmark of the Grand Tour." "But there were too many corpses to bury. [66][67] The remaining 115 bombers from the stream of 431 misidentified their targets. Le recensement des survivants restés sur place, selon le décompte du 30 avril 1945, deux mois après l'attaque, fait état de 368 519 personnes[21]. [28] This allowed Sinclair to inform Churchill on 27 January of the Air Staff's agreement that, "subject to the overriding claims" on other targets under the Pointblank Directive, strikes against communications in these cities to disrupt civilian evacuation from the east and troop movement from the west would be made. [57] The first bombs were released at 22:13, the last at 22:28, the Lancasters delivering 881.1 tons of bombs, 57% high explosive, 43% incendiaries. ... We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy's war effort. The inquiry declared the elimination of the German ability to reinforce a counter-attack against Marshal Konev's extended line or, alternatively, to retreat and regroup using Dresden as a base of operations, were important military objectives. Une hypothèse (défendue entre autres par l'Allemagne de l'Est à partir de 1949) était que les Alliés occidentaux avaient voulu laisser à l'Union soviétique une zone d'occupation détruite.[réf. [7] D'autres bombardements sur l'Allemagne (Berlin et Hambourg lors de l'opération Gomorrhe) furent aussi très meurtriers, mais celui de Dresde a plus profondément choqué les esprits, peut-être parce que la ville était davantage perçue comme une ville d'arts et de culture et qu'elle avait un intérêt stratégique moins important (ne pouvant justifier une attaque aussi lourde), d'autant plus que l'Albertstadt, le fort militaire de Dresde, n'a pas été bombardé. Comme le fut Hiroshima, Tokyo et Nagazaki pour les Japonais 5 … He passed on the request to Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Charles Portal, the Chief of the Air Staff, who answered, "We should use available effort in one big attack on Berlin and attacks on Dresden, Leipzig, and Chemnitz, or any other cities where a severe blitz will not only cause confusion in the evacuation from the East, but will also hamper the movement of troops from the West. [7] British historian Frederick Taylor wrote of the attacks: "The destruction of Dresden has an epically tragic quality to it. [37] Nonetheless, according to some historians, the contribution of Dresden to the German war effort may not have been as significant as the planners thought. Cependant trois ans plus tard, il considérait les puissances occidentales comme seules responsables du bombardement criminel de Dresde qui ne répondait à aucune nécessité militaire. DK’s største udvalg af designerlamper. [61] The German sirens sounded again at 01:05, but as there was practically no electricity, these were small hand-held sirens that were heard within only a block. En une nuit et deux jours, près de 1 300 bombardiers ont largué 2 431 tonnes (tons) de bombes « HE » (high explosive, à grand pouvoir explosif, comportant un régime de détonation supersonique), et 1 475 tonnes de bombes « IB » (incendiary bombs, soit des centaines de milliers de bombes incendiaires), lors de trois raids principaux (13 et 14 février) et d'un dernier raid le 15 février, soit plus de 3 900 tonnes d'engins explosifs et incendaires[12]. The high explosives were intended to rupture water mains and blow off roofs, doors, and windows to create an air flow to feed the fires caused by the incendiaries that followed. Du 13 au 15 février 1945 suivant le plan « Bomber Harris* » du boucher Harris les bombardiers de la Royal Air Force et de l’U.S. Pour son coprésident, Tino Chrupalla, le véritable bilan serait d'« environ 100 000 victimes »[30]. British historian Antony Beevor wrote that Dresden was considered relatively safe, having been spared previous RAF night attacks, and that at the time of the raids there were up to 300,000 refugees in the area seeking sanctuary from the advancing Red Army from the Eastern Front. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. L'historien Alexander McKee souligne le caractère inusuel du raid, jusqu'aux feuilles de routes masquées dans les cockpits jusqu'au dernier moment[15]. As a large city and industrial centre, Hamburg's shipyards, U-boat pens, and the Hamburg-Harburg area oil refineries were attacked throughout the war. [117] The Survey's majority view on the Allies' bombing of German cities, however, concluded: "The city area raids have left their mark on the German people as well as on their cities. Frauenkirche: Exceptionnel - consultez 6 540 avis de voyageurs, 3 948 photos, les meilleures offres et comparez les prix pour Dresde, Allemagne sur Tripadvisor. [9][10][11] Some have claimed that the raid constituted a war crime. Le phosphore blanc fut largement crédité par les Alliés d'avoir empêché de nombreuses attaques de l'infanterie allemande et d'avoir créé de gros dégâts dans les troupes ennemies lors de la dernière partie de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Un bombardement, à plusieurs milliers de km de la ligne de front, est toujours un acte politique. His account relates that over 135,000 were killed during the firebombings. At a press briefing held by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force two days after the raids, British Air Commodore Colin McKay Grierson told journalists: First of all they (Dresden and similar towns) are the centres to which evacuees are being moved. The first was on 2 March 1945, by 406 B-17s, which dropped 940 tons of high-explosive bombs and 141 tons of incendiaries. [2] An estimated 22,700[3] to 25,000[4] people were killed. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. Leur toit était peint en blanc avec une croix rouge, rassurant encore davantage les habitants. D'après Frederick Taylor, le ministère fit gonfler le nombre de morts par un facteur dix[31]. [88] Three municipal and 17 rural cemeteries outside Dresden recorded up to 30 April 1945 a total of at least 21,895 buried bodies of the Dresden raids, including those cremated on the Altmarkt. This experience was also used in several of his other books and is included in his posthumously published stories: Armageddon in Retrospect. It also said there were barracks, hutted camps, and a munitions storage depot. [c][56] Wing Commander Maurice Smith, flying in a Mosquito, gave the order to the Lancasters: "Controller to Plate Rack Force: Come in and bomb glow of red target indicators as planned. In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city. Marshall's tribunal declared that no extraordinary decision was made to single out Dresden (e.g.

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